Today is Sunday, Sept. 8, the 251st day of 2019. There are 114 days left in the year.

Today in history

On Sept. 8, 1892, an early version of “The Pledge of Allegiance,” written by Francis Bellamy, appeared in “The Youth’s Companion.” It went: “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

Also on this date:

In 1565, a Spanish expedition established the first permanent European settlement in North America at present-day St. Augustine, Fla.

In 1664, the Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to the British, who renamed it New York.

In 1900, Galveston, Texas, was struck by a hurricane that killed an estimated 8,000 people.

In 1935, Sen. Huey P. Long, a Louisiana Democrat, was shot and mortally wounded inside the Louisiana State Capitol; he died two days later. (The assailant was identified as Dr. Carl Weiss, who was gunned down by Long’s bodyguards.)

In 1941, the 900-day Siege of Leningrad by German forces began during World War II.

In 1943, during World War II, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower announced Italy’s surrender; Nazi Germany denounced Italy’s decision as a cowardly act.

In 1964, public schools in Prince Edward County, Va., reopened after being closed for five years by officials attempting to prevent court-ordered racial desegregation.

Fun fact

There is a monument to the lab mouse in Siberia, Russia, commemorating their role in genetic research.

Just for laughs

Why was the cat afraid of the tree?

Because of its bark.

Trending words

“Fecund:” adjective; (fe·​cund). Definition: Fruitful in offspring or vegetation or intellectually productive or inventive to a marked degree.

— Merriam-Webster

Today’s birthdays

Ventriloquist Willie Tyler is 79. Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., is 78. Actor Alan Feinstein is 78. Pop singer Sal Valentino (The Beau Brummels) is 77. Author Ann Beattie is 72. Former Secretary of Defense James Mattis is 69. Cajun singer Zachary Richard is 69. Musician Will Lee is 67. Actress Heather Thomas is 62. Singer Aimee Mann is 59. Pop musician David Steele (Fine Young Cannibals) is 59. Actor Thomas Kretschmann is 57. Rhythm-and-blues singer Marc Gordon (Levert) is 55. Gospel singer Darlene Zschech is 54. Alternative country singer Neko Case is 49. TV personality Brooke Burke-Charvet is 48. Actor Martin Freeman is 48. Actor David Arquette is 48. TV-radio personality Kennedy is 47. Rock musician Richard Hughes (Keane) is 44. Actor Larenz Tate is 44. Actor Nathan Corddry is 42. Rhythm-and-blues singer Pink is 40. Singer-songwriter Eric Hutchinson is 39. Actor Jonathan Taylor Thomas is 38. Rapper Wiz Khalifa is 32. Actor Gaten Matarazzo (TV: “Stranger Things”) is 17.

The Edge is compiled by Dallas Marshall. She can be contacted at dmarshall@lmtribune.com.

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